The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) was established on Nov.10, 1999 in Lausanne. It is first world wide agency to try to combat use of drugs in sport. The mission of WADA is to promote and co-ordinate the fight against doping in sport internationally. It was set up in 1999 following a series of high profile doping scandals.
The National Anti-Doping Agency (NADA) is the national organization responsible for promoting, co-ordinating and monitoring the doping control programme in sports in all its forms in the country. NADA works towards a vision of ‘Dope Free’ sport in India.
NADA’S PRIMARY FUNCTIONS
-Adopting and implementing anti-doping rules and policies which conform to the World Anti-Doping Code.
-Co-operating with other sports related organizations and other anti-doping organizations.
-Encouraging reciprocal testing between National Anti-Doping Organizations.
-Promoting anti-doping research and education.
The World Anti-Doping Code is the document that harmonizes regulation regarding anti-doping in sports across all sports and all countries of the world. The code provides a frame work for anti-doping polices, rules and regulations for sports organizations and public authorities so that there may be a level playing field for all athletes worldwide.
PROHIBITED SUBSTANCES AND METHODS
The World Anti-Doping Agency annually updates the list of Prohibited Substances and Methods. The list is the International Standard defining what is prohibited in-competition and out-of-competition. The list also indicates whether particular substances are banned in particular sports.
In accordance with WADA Code the athletes are responsible whenever a prohibited substance is found in their body specimen. This means that a violation occurs whether or not the athlete intentionally or unintentionally, knowingly or unknowingly, used a prohibited substance or was negligent or otherwise at fault.
Athletes should always check with their National Federations/ International federations to find out what additional substances and methods are prohibited in their sports. Also, athletes should always make their doctor aware that they are bound by the specific rules of their sport. Those who are unsure of what a product contains should not take it until they are sure it is not prohibited. Ignorance is never an excuse.
Doping controls or athlete testing are carried out in accordance with the Code and the International Standard for testing. Athletes who compete at the international and national level may be tested anytime, anywhere. Specially trained and accredited doping control personnel carry out all tests.
NADA is responsible to implement an effective number of in-competition and out-of-competition tests on the athletes in its registered testing pool. This includes international and national level athletes being tested by NADA. The NADA develops a test distribution plan and allocates the number of samples for each sport or discipline required for effective deterrence. The plan includes out-of-competition testing, in-competition testing and may include blood as well as urine collection.
NADA co-ordinates in-competition testing so that there is only one organization testing at one event. Criteria for the selection of athletes are predetermined, based on the regulations of the relevant International Federation or event ruling body. Athletes are notified of their selection for testing immediately following competition and sample collection takes place in accordance with the International Standard for Testing. Samples are analyzed for “in-competition substances” as outlined in the WADA Prohibited List.
Out-of-competition testing or any testing done outside of an event ensures that all athletes can be tested at any time and at any place. An athlete identified in the registered testing pool by NADA is required to provide accurate and current whereabouts information. This information is usually required on a half-yearly basis, although NADA may have specific requirement and updates are required if the athlete’s plane change. Whereabouts information may include details such as home address, work schedule, training venues and schedule and competition schedule anything which will help a Doping Control Officer (DOC) find the athlete on any given day. International or National level athletes identified in a registered testing pool are responsible under the Code for providing whereabouts information to NADA. Failure to do so in accordance with anti-doping regulations may be considered an anti-doping rule violation and may result in a sanction.
IOC SANCTIONS FOR DOPING OFFENCE
A. Penalties for a first offence:
a] For ephedrine, phenylepropanolamine, pseudoephedrine, caffeine, strychnine or related substances:
1. A warning
2. A fine of upto US $ 100,000
3. Suspension from any competition for a period of one to six months.
b] For anabolic steroids, beta blockers, diuretics, narcotics, peptide hormones, stimulants other than those referred to in paragraph a] above:
1. A fine of upto US $ 100,000
2. Suspension from any competition for a minimum period of two years.
B. In case of second offence:
a] If the prohibited substance used is ephedrine, phenylepropanolamine, pseudoephedrine, caffeine, strychnine or related substances:
1. A fine upto US $ 100,000
2. Suspension from any competition for a period of two to eight years.
b] If the prohibited substance used is one other than those referred to in paragraph a] above-over if it is a repeat offence [a repeat offence being constituted by a further case of doping perpetuated within a period of ten years after the proceeding sanction, whatever form it took and whatever the reason]:
1. A fine upto US $ 100,000
2. Life ban on participation in any sports event in any capacity.